Cardiovascular Syetem Mnemonics

  • some Cardiovascular Mnemonics for your help
  • Complications of myocardial infarction (DARTH VADER)
    • Death
    • Arrhythmia
    • Rupture (free ventricular wall/ ventricular septum/ papillary muscles)
    • Tamponade
    • Heart failure (acute or chronic)
    • Valve disease
    • Aneurysm of ventricle
    • Dressler’s syndrome
    • thromboEmbolism (mural thrombus)
    • Recurrence/ mitral Regurgitation
  • Beck’s triad of acute cardiac tamponade (3 D’s)
    • Distant heart sounds
    • Decreased arterial BP
    • Distended neck veins

Aortic regurgitation: causes

CREAM:

Congenital

Rheumatic damage

Endocarditis

Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation

Marfan’s

Aortic stenosis characteristics

SAD

Syncope

Angina

Dyspnoea

Aortic to right Subclavian path

ABC’S

Aortic arch gives rise to:

Brachiocephalic trunk

Left Common Carotid

Left Subclavian

Heart valves (right to left)

Toilet Paper MAss, or They Pay MAlcohol, or “T”hugs “P”ush “Me” “A”round

Tricuspid valve

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

Aortic semilunar valve

Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable

HILT

Heaving

Impalpable

Laterally displaced

Thrusting/ Tapping

If it’s impalpable, causes are COPD

COPD

Obesity

Pleural, Pericardial effusion

Dextrocardia

Atrial Arrhythmias

ABCDE

Anticoagulants: To prevent embolization.

Beta blockers: To block the effects of certain hormones on the heart to slow the heart rate.

Calcium Channel Blockers: Help slow the heart rate by blocking the number of electrical impulses that pass through the AV node into the lower heart chambers (ventricles).

Digoxin: Helps slow the heart rate by blocking the number of electrical impulses that pass through the AV node into the lower heart chambers (ventricles).

Electrocardioversion: A procedure in which electric currents are used to reset the heart’s rhythm back to regular pattern.[3]

Atrial Fibrillation causes

Pirates

Pulmonary: PE, COPD

Iatrogenic

Rheumatic heart: mitral regurgitation

Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD

Thyroid: hyperthyroid

Endocarditis

Sick sinus syndrome

Atrial fibrillation management

ABCD

Anti-coagulate

Beta-block to control rate

Cardiovert

Digoxin

Beck’s triad (cardiac tamponade)

3 D’s

Distant heart sounds

Distended jugular veins

Decreased arterial pressure

Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers

Betablockers Acting Exclusively AMyocardium

Betaxolol

Acebutelol

Esmolol

Atenolol

Metoprolol

CHF Treatment

LMNOP

Lasix

Morphine

Nitrites

Oxygen

VassoPressors

CHF: causes of exacerbation

FAILURE

Forgot medication

Arrhythmia/ Anaemia

Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection

Lifestyle: taken too much salt

Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism

Renal failure

Embolism: pulmonary

Complications of Myocardial Infarction

Darth Vader

Death

Arrythmia

Rupture(free ventricular wall/ ventricular septum/ papillary muscles)

Tamponade

Heart failure (acute or chronic)

Valve disease

Aneurysm of Ventricles

Dressler’s Syndrome

thromboEmbolism (mural thrombus)

Recurrence/ mitral Regurgitation[5]

Coronary artery bypass graft: indications

DUST

Depressed ventricular function

Unstable angina

Stenosis of the left main stem

Triple vessel disease

ECG: left vs. right bundle block

WiLLiaM MaRRoW

W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.

M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.

Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications

RAMP:

Recent MI

Aortic stenosis

MI in the last 7 days

Pulmonary hypertension

Endocarditis

FROM JANE:

Fever

Roth’s spots

Osler’s nodes

Murmur of heart

Janeway lesions

Anemia

  • Nail hemorrhage

Emboli

Heart valve sequence

Try Puling My Aorta

Tricuspid

Pulmonary

Mitral (bicuspid)

Aorta

Heart blocks

If the R is far from P, then you have a First Degree.

Longer, longer, longer, drop! Then you have a Wenkebach.

if some P’s don’t get through, then you have Mobitz II.

If P’s and Q’s don’t agree, then you have a Third Degree

Infarctions

INFARCTIONS

IV access

Narcotic analgesics (e.g. morphine, pethidine)

Facilities for defibrillation (DF)

Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)

Rest

Converting enzyme inhibitor

Thrombolysis

IV beta blocker

Oxygen 60%

Nitrates

Stool Softeners

JVP: wave form

ASK ME

Atrial contraction

Systole (ventricular contraction)

Klosure (closure) of tricuspid valve, so atrial filling

Maximal atrial filling

Emptying of atrium

MI: basic management

BOOMAR

Bed rest

Oxygen

Opiate

Monitor

Anticoagulate

Reduce clot size

MI: signs and symptoms

PULSE:

Persistent chest pains

Upset stomach

Lightheadedness

Shortness of breath

Excessive sweating

MI: therapeutic treatment

O BATMAN

Oxygen

Beta blocker

ASA

Thrombolytics (e.g. heparin)

Morphine

Ace prn

Nitroglycerin

MI: treatment of acute MI

COAG:

Cyclomorph

Oxygen

Aspirin

Glycerol trinitrate

Murmur attributes

“IL PQRST” (person has ill PQRST heart waves)

Intensity

Loccasion

Pitch

Quality

Radiation

Shape

Timing

Murmurs: innocent murmur features

8 S’s

Soft

Systolic

Short

Sounds (S1 & S2) normal

Symptomless

Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)

Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)

Sternal depression

Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration

LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration

RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration.[1]p. 32

Murmurs: questions to ask

SCRIPT

Site

Character (e.g. harsh, soft, blowing)

Radiation

Intensity

Pitch

Timing

Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic

PASS:Pulmonic & Aortic

Stenosis=Systolic.

PAIDPulmonic & Aortic

Insufficiency=Diastolic

Pericarditis: causes

CARDIAC RIND

Collagen vascular disease

Aortic aneurysm

Radiation

Drugs (such as hydralazine)

Infections

Acute renal failure

Cardiac infarction

Rheumatic fever

Injury

Neoplasms

Dressler’s syndrome

Pericarditis: EKG

PericarditiS:

PR depression in precordial leads.

ST elevation.

Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria

SICVD

Symmetry of leg musculature

Integrity of skin

Color of toenails

Varicose veins

Distribution of hair

Pulseless electrical activity: causes

PATCH MED

Pulmonary embolus

Acidosis

Tension pneumothorax

Cardiac tamponade

Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia

Myocardial infarction

Electrolyte derangements

Drugs

ST elevation causes in ECG

ELEVATION

Electrolytes

LBBB

Early repolarization

Ventricular hypertrophy

Aneurysm

Treatment (e.g. pericardiocentesis)

Injury (AMI, contusion)

Osborne waves (hypothermia)

Non-occlusive vasospasm

Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment

ABCDE

Adenosine

Beta-blocker

Calcium channel antagonist

Digoxin

Excitation (vagal stimulation)

Ventricular tachycardia: treatment

LAMB:

Lidocaine

Amiodarone

Mexiltene/ Magnesium

Beta-blocker

White Blood Cell Count

Never let monkeys eat bananas:

Neutrophils

lymphocytes

monocytes

eosinophils

basophils

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *